**Taking a step back to sanity on this one, sorry about the difficulty of lesson 11**

Topics Discussed: Using a loop to count something for us.

**Casting numbers**

Casting numbers is an important part of any programming language that has certain roles that numbers fall into. The basic idea is this: assume that you have two numbers that you would like to divide, let’s assume you have 12 items that you want to divide equally among 7 people, assuming that we were to type that problem into java as an integer, we would get the following:

`12 / 7 = 1`

We can clearly see that this is wrong, but when you think about it, it’s also right. An integer cannot possibly hold a decimal value, therefore it being > 1.5 does not mean it will be rounded or anything of the sort… everything after the decimal place is truncated and discarded. Thus 1.71 (12/7) becomes 1. The way to have this resolve as we would like is as follows:

```
12/7.0; // 1.71.....
```

Now there’s a lot of different ways that you can cast numbers like this, here is a non-complete list of ways that you can cast integers into doubles for a moment:

```
double a=0, b=0, c=0, d=0, e=0, f=0, g=0;
a = 12/7;
b = 12.0/7;
c = 12/7.0;
d = 12.0/7.0;
e = (double)(12)/7;
f = 12/(double)(7);
g = (double)(12)/(double)(7);
System.out.println("a = "+ a);
System.out.println("b = "+ b);
System.out.println("c = "+ c);
System.out.println("d = "+ d);
System.out.println("e = "+ e);
System.out.println("f = "+ f);
System.out.println("g = "+ g);
```

The output of the above is as follows:

```
Program output:
a = 1.0
b = 1.7142857142857142
c = 1.7142857142857142
d = 1.7142857142857142
e = 1.7142857142857142
f = 1.7142857142857142
g = 1.7142857142857142
```

**Using a loop to increment a number**

Essentially, we’re taking a number defined outside the scope of the loop and incrementing it by the counter of the loop:

```
int total=0;
for (int i=0; i<10; i++){
total += i;
}
```

In the above example we are incrementing total by using the contents of i each time through the loop. If we preserve i for use outside the loop we can easily find the average by dividing out total by the final value of i.